This project aims to examine the interactions of welfare states and housing systems and explore the broader relations and pathways that constitute different welfare systems and regimes. This is achieved in two ways. First, a quantitative comparison of aggregate data on housing systems as well as employment, demographic and welfare variables at the national level will provide a quantitative framework for understanding changing system relationships in each context and convergent and divergent trends. Second, a combination of studies that compare the arrangement and development of institutional frameworks will address differentiated progress in deregulation, marketization and privatization and how they have reshaped the features and operation of housing markets and home ownership in social and welfare systems. The former and latter are divided as research foci between the postdoctoral researcher and the PI, respectively, but will be pursued concurrently with the findings of each informing the progress of the other. This examination of institutional constellations in the six countries will be used to contextualize aggregate data and develop a more complex model of welfare regime diversity, incorporating housing markets and family housing property as a welfare pillar.